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Autism Case Study - STEM CELL AUTISM TREATMENT

Autism treatment studies and stem cell protocols:

Related Articles CORTECON: A Temporal Transcriptome Analysis of In Vitro Human Cerebral Cortex Development from Human Embryonic Stem Cells. Neuron. 2014 Jul 2;83(1):51-68 Authors: van de Leemput J, Boles NC, Kiehl TR, Corneo B, Lederman P, Menon V, Lee C, Martinez RA, Levi BP, Thompson CL, Yao S, Kaykas A, Temple S, Fasano CA Abstract Many neurological and psychiatric disorders affect the cerebral cortex, and a clearer understanding of the molecular processes underlying human corticogenesis will provide greater insight into such pathologies. To date, knowledge of gene expression changes accompanying corticogenesis is largely based on murine data. Here we present a searchable, comprehensive, temporal gene expression data set encompassing cerebral cortical development from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Using a modified differentiation protocol that yields neurons suggestive of prefrontal cortex, we identified sets of genes and long noncoding RNAs that significantly change during corticogenesis and those enriched for disease-associations. Numerous alternatively spliced genes with varying temporal patterns of expression are revealed, including TGIF1, involved in holoprosencephaly, and MARK1, involved in autism. We have created a database (http://cortecon.neuralsci.org/) that provides online, query-based access to changes in RNA expression and alternatively spliced transcripts during human cortical development. PMID: 24991954 [PubMed - in process]
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Related Articles A quantitative framework to evaluate modeling of cortical development by neural stem cells. Neuron. 2014 Jul 2;83(1):69-86 Authors: Stein JL, de la Torre-Ubieta L, Tian Y, Parikshak NN, Hernández IA, Marchetto MC, Baker DK, Lu D, Hinman CR, Lowe JK, Wexler EM, Muotri AR, Gage FH, Kosik KS, Geschwind DH Abstract Neural stem cells have been adopted to model a wide range of neuropsychiatric conditions in vitro. However, how well such models correspond to in vivo brain has not been evaluated in an unbiased, comprehensive manner. We used transcriptomic analyses to compare in vitro systems to developing human fetal brain and observed strong conservation of in vivo gene expression and network architecture in differentiating primary human neural progenitor cells (phNPCs). Conserved modules are enriched in genes associated with ASD, supporting the utility of phNPCs for studying neuropsychiatric disease. We also developed and validated a machine learning approach called CoNTExT that identifies the developmental maturity and regional identity of in vitro models. We observed strong differences between in vitro models, including hiPSC-derived neural progenitors from multiple laboratories. This work provides a systems biology framework for evaluating in vitro systems and supports their value in studying the molecular mechanisms of human neurodevelopmental disease. PMID: 24991955 [PubMed - in process]
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Related Articles Modeling a Genetic Risk for Schizophrenia in iPSCs and Mice Reveals Neural Stem Cell Deficits Associated with Adherens Junctions and Polarity. Cell Stem Cell. 2014 Jul 3;15(1):79-91 Authors: Yoon KJ, Nguyen HN, Ursini G, Zhang F, Kim NS, Wen Z, Makri G, Nauen D, Shin JH, Park Y, Chung R, Pekle E, Zhang C, Towe M, Hussaini SM, Lee Y, Rujescu D, St Clair D, Kleinman JE, Hyde TM, Krauss G, Christian KM, Rapoport JL, Weinberger DR, Song H, Ming GL Abstract Defects in brain development are believed to contribute toward the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders, but identifying specific underlying mechanisms has proven difficult. Here, we took a multifaceted approach to investigate why 15q11.2 copy number variants are prominent risk factors for schizophrenia and autism. First, we show that human iPSC-derived neural progenitors carrying 15q11.2 microdeletion exhibit deficits in adherens junctions and apical polarity. This results from haploinsufficiency of CYFIP1, a gene within 15q11.2 that encodes a subunit of the WAVE complex, which regulates cytoskeletal dynamics. In developing mouse cortex, deficiency in CYFIP1 and WAVE signaling similarly affects radial glial cells, leading to their ectopic localization outside of the ventricular zone. Finally, targeted human genetic association analyses revealed an epistatic interaction between CYFIP1 and WAVE signaling mediator ACTR2 and risk for schizophrenia. Our findings provide insight into how CYFIP1 regulates neural stem cell function and may contribute to the susceptibility of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID: 24996170 [PubMed - in process]
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